Regardless of the manufacturer of the router (D-Link, Zyxel, ASUS and others), the setup begins with the following steps.
If the router is not new and it already has other people's settings, you need to reset them. To do this, find the button on the rear panel that you want to press with the rod from the handle. She is signed by Reset. Press it and hold until all indicators turn off and turn on again.
Connect the router to the computer. The easiest way to do this is to use the network cable that comes with the kit. If it is not there or if you are setting up from a tablet or smartphone, you can connect to the router via WiFi. To do this, press the WPS button on the device (it will allow you to connect to the router within 1-2 minutes without entering a password), sit down at your computer and find the desired wireless network. At the first setup, its name will be something like this:
Click on the desired name and click the "Connect" button.
The computer should get the network settings automatically. If this does not happen, make sure that the wireless network adapter receives the IP address via DHCP.
Further, the process depends on the manufacturer. In this manual, the configuration will be performed using the TP-LINK TL-WR841N / TL-WR841ND WiFi router as an example. Since the configuration principle is the same, it can be used for any other device.
Open a browser and enter the IP address of the router. In the case of TP-LINK, this is 192.168.0.1
In devices of other manufacturers, the address 192.168.1.1 or 192.168.10.1 can be used.
A page should open where you enter your username and password. By default, TP-LINK for the router is admin / admin. For D-Link: admin with a blank password or password 12345 or 12345678. For Zyxel: admin / 1234 or admin / password. ASUS: admin / admin. Also, a login with a password can be found in the instructions, and sometimes they are written on the bottom of the device.
Set up your Internet connection. To do this, go to the WAN section. On my device, this is done as follows: “Network” - “WAN”
and enter the settings that the ISP issued, for example:
and click the "Save" button.
Connect the cable that comes to your apartment from the provider to the network device - the WAN port. On the computer from which the router was configured, the Internet should appear.
If the Internet does not appear, you need to call the provider and inform them about the appearance of a new router with a new MAC address. They must change the binding of the latter, and within 15 minutes the Internet will work.
Now configure WiFi. Go to the appropriate section - I have it “Wireless Mode” - “Wireless Settings”
and specify the name of the network you want to use, for example:
Go to the WiFi security settings section, at TP-LINK: “Wireless Mode” - “Wireless Security Protection”
Choose the most secure method of protection (now WPA2) and enter your password, for example:
Click "Save." Now you can connect to the router via WiFi.
This was an instruction on the basic configuration of the router, which will allow you to distribute the Internet via secure WiFi to all devices in the apartment, cafe or office.
If you need advanced settings, write and I will help with advice or instructions.
When choosing equipment for this type of server, it is necessary to rely on the requirements of the applications that will be launched by users and the number of the latter. For example, if you install a terminal server for the 1C program, and the number of concurrent employees is 20, we obtain the following characteristics (approximately):
- Processor from Xeon E5.
- At least 28 GB of memory (1 GB per user + 4 for the operating system + 4 stock - this is slightly less than 20%).
- It is better to build a disk system based on SAS disks. The volume must be taken into account individually, as this depends on the nature of the tasks and methods for solving them.
I also suggest reading the article How to choose a server.
Before you begin installing the operating system, do the following:
- Configure a fault tolerant RAID array (levels 1, 5, 6, or 10, as well as combinations thereof). This setting is performed in the built-in utility of the controller. To start it, follow the prompts on the screen during server startup.
- Connect the server to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Check that it works. Turn off the power to the UPS and verify that the server continues to operate.
During the installation of the system, it is important to consider only one nuance - the disk system must be divided into two logical partitions. The first (small, 70 - 120 GB) to allocate for system files, the second - for user data.
There are two main reasons for this:
- A small system disk works and is serviced faster (scanning, defragmentation, antivirus scanning, and so on)
- Users should not be able to store their information on the system partition. Otherwise, disk overflow is possible and, as a result, the server is slow and unstable.
Basic Windows Server Setup
- Check the correct time and time zone settings,
- We set a friendly name for the server and, if necessary, enter it into the domain,
- Configure a static IP address,
- If the server is not connected directly to the Internet, you should disable the firewall,
- For remote administration, enable remote desktop,
- Install all system updates.
Why move to the cloud?
After all, you can take a physical server, “raise” a terminal server on it and provide access to the same 1C to everyone who needs it. Earlier, we already wrote about the advantages of a virtual server and especially do not want to repeat ourselves. In short, the virtual server does not need physical maintenance (for example, to replace failed components, to clean it from dust), it is easier to backup and restore the server (after all, there are snapshots), you do not need to buy expensive UPSs, organize backup . The xelent.cloud platform takes care of all this.
As has already been calculated in the article “Physical or virtual”, the content of a virtual server is inexpensive, and sometimes even cheaper than a physical server, given the enormous cost of its purchase.
The only thing you will have to spend extra on is a terminal access license. But you would buy them anyway, regardless of whether your server is local physical, virtual or dedicated.
Creating a virtual server
In order to configure the terminal server, the first thing you need to do is create a virtual server. Since we will create a terminal server, we need to order the appropriate configuration. Two cores will not be enough, at least four cores, 12 GB of RAM and 120 GB. You don’t need to order a disk too large - you can always increase its volume. Operating System - Windows Server 2012 R2. In principle, you can choose a different version (2008 or 2016), but then all the illustrations will be given on the example of Windows Server 2012 R2.
Fig. 1. Created (minimum) server configuration
It should be noted that such a configuration will cost only 4820 rubles per month - little money for the enterprise. Such a configuration will be enough for 5 users to work simultaneously. If you need more, it is recommended to increase the number of cores to 8 and the amount of RAM up to 16 GB. This configuration is enough for comfortable work of 10-15 users (at the same time). But it will cost 6520 rubles a month already.
So, our server is created. By the way, it took only 2 minutes and 57 seconds to create it. I wonder how long it takes to deliver the physical server and its initial configuration?
Fig. 2. Virtual server created
Connect to the server using the data provided in the control panel.
Fig. 3. Remote connection to the server. Server Manager launched
Install Remote Desktop Services
Open Server Manager if you have closed it. To do this, run it from the shortcut on the taskbar or run the servermanager.exe command - as you like best.
On the Management menu, click Add Roles and Features. The Add Roles and Features Wizard opens.
Fig. 4. Management menu
Fig. 5. Add Roles and Features Wizard
Then follow these steps:
- Press button Further.
- Leave the switch in position. Install roles or featuresat and press the button again Further.
- Select a server from the pool on which you want to install Terminal Services. In our case there will be one server. Press button Further.
- Mark the role Remote Desktop Services and press the button Further.
Fig. 6. Leave the switch in the Install Roles or Features position.
Fig. 7. Select a server
Fig. 8. Select Remote Desktop Services
We also need a service Remote Desktop Session Host . As in the previous case, you need to agree to add additional components.
Fig. 9. Just click Next
Fig. 10. Select Remote Desktop Licensing, and then click Add Features.
Fig. 11. Installing the Remote Desktop Session Host service
We have identified all role installation options. On the last page of the wizard, enable the option Automatic restart of the destination serverif required and click Install .
Fig. 12. Click Install
It remains to wait for the installation of the role. If everything goes well, after rebooting you will see a message about the successful installation of all selected services and components. Just click the button Close to complete the wizard.
Fig. 13. Installation completed
Configure Remote Desktop Licensing Server
Now you need to run Remote Desktop Licensing Diagnostic Tool. To do this, select the appropriate command from the menu Tools, Terminal Services Server Manager
Fig. 14. Launch Remote Desktop Licensing Diagnostic Tool
The diagnostic tool will report that there are no available licenses yet because the licensing mode for the RD Session Host server is not set. The diagnostic tool will also inform you that the grace period (by default 120 days) has not yet expired, but this server is not yet configured to use at least one licensing server.
Fig. 15. No licenses available
Regarding the grace period, you need to know the following:
- There is a grace period during which a licensing server is not required, however, after it expires, clients must use a valid Remote Desktop Services client license issued by the licensing server to connect to the server.
- Remote Desktop supports two simultaneous connections for remote administration of a computer. For these connections, a licensing server is not required.
In other words, while you have not bought a license for terminal access, you can take advantage of the grace period. Why not use a terminal server for free for 4 whole months? Then, if you need only two remote connections, for example, you have two remote offices, then the licensing server is not required at all, and the configuration of the virtual server can be simplified - 8 GB of RAM is enough.
In Windows Server 2012, the licensing server is specified in local group policies, so run the gpedit.msc command to open the local group policy editor.
Go to Computer Configuration, Administrative Templates, Windows Components, Remote Desktop Services, Remote Desktop Session Host, Licensing .
Fig. 16. Local Group Policy Editor
Open options Use Specified Remote Desktop Licensing Servers - just double click on the parameter name. In the window that appears, set the switch to Included and specify which licensing server to use. We will use the same server. Specify a server name or server name and click Ok.
Fig. 17. Licensing server settings
Next, open the options Set Remote Desktop Licensing Mode. Set the switch to Included and specify the licensing mode of the RD Session Host server. There are two possible options - “Per device” or “Per user”. Suppose you have 10 licenses. In the “On device” mode, you can create an unlimited number of users on the server who can connect through the remote desktop from only 10 computers on which these licenses are installed. If you select the "Per user" mode, then only 10 selected users will be able to access the server, but from any device. Often the “Per user” mode is preferable, therefore we select it.
Fig. 18. Choosing a licensing mode
As a result, you should have the parameters set as shown in fig. 19. Close the local group policy editor window.
Fig. 19. Result of setting parameters
Return to the Remote Desktop Licensing Diagnostic Tool window and click Refresh. You will see a new error that tells us that the licensing server is not turned on.
Fig. 20. New mistake
To start the licensing server, go to Remote Desktop Licensing Manager - it can be called up in the menu Tools, Terminal Services. Find our server in the list, right-click on it and select the command Activate server .
Fig. 21. Remote Desktop Licensing Manager
A window will open Server Activation Wizardswhere you need to press the button Further - on the first page of the wizard. Select a connection method. It is recommended to leave it as it is - Auto .
Fig. 22. Server activation wizard
Fig. 23. Choosing a connection method
Enter your organization information and click Next. It is not recommended to fill out additional information about the organization, just click Next.
Fig. 24. Entering information about the organization
Fig. 25. Additional information about the organization
The licensing server has been successfully activated. Now you need to run the license installation wizard. Do not turn off the checkbox Run the license installation wizard and press the button Further .
Fig. 26. The licensing server is activated
Install Remote Desktop Services Licenses
So in the previous section, you clicked Further with the checkbox active Run the license installation wizard. In the window that appears, just click Further.
Fig. 27. License installation wizard launched
Select the licensing program you need. Here you should choose your licensing program. In the article, for reasons of demonstrating server settings, we will use the program Enterprise Agreement .
Fig. 28. Select a licensing program
Enter the agreement number. It usually consists of seven digits. Press button Further .
Fig. 29. Enter agreement number
Next, you need to select the product version (select Windows Server 2012), the type of license and the number of licenses. Earlier we chose the “Per User” licensing type, so here we must choose Remote Desktop Services Client Access License. Enter the number of licenses available on this licensing server.
Fig. 30. Product version and license type
Press button Further and wait for the license wizard to complete successfully. If you did everything correctly, you will receive a message stating that all the requested licenses are installed.
Fig. 31. Requested licenses successfully installed
Open Remote Desktop Licensing Manager. You need to make sure that the server is working, as well as view the total available number of installed licenses.
Fig. 32. Remote Desktop Licensing Manager
Go back to Remote Desktop Licensing Diagnostic Tool and make sure there are no errors. At the same time, you will see information about the installed licenses.
Fig. 33. Remote Desktop Licensing Diagnostic Tool. No mistakes
This completes the configuration of the terminal server. You just have to add users who are allowed remote access to the server to the group Remote Desktop Users (Remote Desktop Users). Indeed, by default only server administrators have the server desktop, and making all users administrators is a bad idea. We will talk about how to do this in the next article.
Connection to a terminal server
An application is used to connect to a terminal server Remote Desktop Connection . There is nothing complicated in its use - you need to specify the server, username and password. If the server is configured correctly, a connection will be made. However, even with such a simple application as Remote Desktop ConnectionThere are secrets to be discussed in the next article.
Fig. 34. Connection to the remote desktop (pay attention to the username - den, not CloudAdmin)
Actually, that’s all. The task, namely, the configuration of the virtual terminal server is completed, and you can use it in full. In the next article we will talk about cloud accounting
1st stage - choose a server platform
- The first thing you need to decide is whether you will buy your server or rent it from a hosting company. Own server needs a room (data center, office, branch or apartment) and sufficient start-up capital.
- When buying your own server, there are options for acquiring high-performance equipment - a professional (from 110,000) or a conventional computer (from 50,000), as well as equipment with lower performance indicators - a class server micro (from 19,000) or nettop (up to 15,000) which are suitable for small companies.
- When renting a server, decide whether you need to configure the service yourself. If not, it’s cheaper and easier to rent a cloud service (from 200 rubles / month). Otherwise, there are two options - renting a physical server (from 3,000 rubles / month for a highly loaded service) or a virtual machine (from 600 rubles / month, with low performance requirements).
Own server or rent - pros and cons:
|Own server||High performance, full control over tuning, low cost of ownership.||High starting cost, you need to service the equipment on your own, you need space for the server.|
|Leased server||Low starting cost, no equipment maintenance required, simple ability to host a server outside of Russia||Relatively low response speed due to remote location, in the absence of the Internet, the ability to work with the server disappears, high cost of ownership due to a constant monthly fee|
|Leased physical server||Relatively high performance||High price|
|Leased virtual machine||Low performance||Relatively low cost|
|Cloud service||No need to configure and maintain the service, fault tolerance||There is no possibility of self-service setup|
2nd stage - choose the main components for the server
Determine the system requirements for the applications that will be installed on the server. Based on the analysis, select the components:
- Central processing unit (CPU) - required to perform mathematical operations. If the software consumes a lot of resources of this component, choose a server with several processors and cores. The frequency of the CPU the more the better. The same is true for the cache. But consider the nuance that some software is licensed to the processor. In this case, it may be more profitable to purchase fewer more powerful processors.
- RAM - stores data with which the running application works. Most servers are very demanding on this component. If your case is no exception, choose a server with a large amount of memory. Also pay attention to the speed of the latter.
- Disk subsystem - is responsible for storing information. The requirements for this component are divided into volume and speed requirements. If you need a lot of disk space, choose a server with a large number of large disks. If you need high speed, opt for SSD (expensive and fast) or SAS (cheaper and slower).
3rd stage - additional costs
Not a mandatory step. In fact, these components are not related to the choice of server itself, but they can significantly improve the efficiency of the latter.
- Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) - allows you to correctly turn off the server in the event of a power outage.
- Power Distribution Units (PDUs) - with a large number of servers connected to the same power supply, it is very important to evenly distribute the load. Otherwise, some of the servers may shut down or not start when turned on at the same time.
- Patch cords. It is very wrong to connect expensive equipment that performs important tasks with a homemade network cable.
Examples of the correct server selection
Task number 1: you need a server to host a business card site.
- The main requirement for a web server is a permanent connection to the Internet. In conditions of independent server maintenance, this is not always justified. We rent a server.
- There are no requirements for high performance or self-tuning for a server for a business card site. We purchase a cloud service in the form of a shared hosting.
Task number 2: you need a virtualization server.
- Virtualization servers host a large number of services. Therefore, when you turn off the Internet, the company's activities can become very paralyzed. It is wiser to buy your own server and not depend on the provider.
- To host a large number of virtual machines, you need a powerful and reliable server. We acquire professional equipment with two processors, large amounts of disk space and RAM.
Task number 3: a company that started its activities (low budget, few employees) needs a mail server with the ability to configure complex filters for incoming messages.
- Since the company has a limited budget and no confidence in the future, it is better to opt for a rented server.
- A cloud service will not work, as there will be no way to create your own sophisticated processing of incoming emails. There is no need for a powerful server, as there are few employees. Rent a virtual machine.
Setting Roles and Features
In the quick launch panel, open Server Manager:
We click Control - Add Roles and Features:
Push Further to “Select installation type”. Leave Install roles and features and click Further twice:
In the window "Select server roles" select Remote Desktop Services:
We click Furtheruntil the "Select Role Services" window appears and select the following:
- Remote Desktop Licensing
- Remote Desktop Session Host
* When you are prompted to install additional components, we agree.
If necessary, also set the remaining checkboxes:
- Web access - the ability to select terminal applications in the browser
- Connection broker - for a cluster of terminal servers, the broker controls the load of each node and distributes it.
- Virtualization node - for virtualizing applications and launching them through the terminal.
- Gateway - a central server for connection authentication and traffic encryption. Allows you to configure RDP inside HTTPS.
Push Further and in the next window Install. We are waiting for the end of the installation process and rebooting the server.
Install Remote Desktop Services
After rebooting, open Server Manager and click Control - Add roles and features:
In the window "Select installation type" select Install Remote Desktop Services and click Further:
In the window "Select deployment type" select Quick start and click Further:
In "Select Deployment Scenario" - Session-Based Desktop Deployment — Further:
Again Further - if necessary, check the box “Automatically restart the destination server, if necessary” and click on Expand.
Configure Remote Desktop Licensing
For the server to work correctly, you need to configure the licensing service. To do this, open the server manager and click on Facilities - Terminal services - Remote Desktop Licensing Manager:
In the window that opens, right-click on our server and select Activate server:
In the window that opens, double-click Further - fill out the form - Further - Further - Uncheck “Run the license installation wizard” - Done.
Open the server manager again and go to Remote Desktop Services:
In the "Deployment Overview" click on Tasks - Change Deployment Properties:
In the window that opens, go to Licensing - Choose the type of license - write the name of the licensing server (in this case, the local server) and make a profit Add:
Apply the settings by clicking Ok.
Open the server manager and click on Facilities - Terminal services - Remote Desktop Licensing Manager:
In the window that opens, right-click on our server and select Install Licenses:
In the window that opens, click Further - select the program by which licenses were purchased, for example, Enterprise Agreement - Further - enter the agreement number and license data - select the product version, type of license and their number - Further - Done.
You can check the licensing status in the server manager: Facilities - Terminal services - Remote Desktop Licensing Diagnostic Tool.
Best Practices Analyzer
For some Windows server roles (in particular, terminal) there is a database of successful configurations. Following the advice of this base, you can increase the reliability and stability of the system.
For a Remote Desktop server, you typically need to follow these guidelines:
1. The Srv.sys file must be configured to run on demand.
At the command prompt, as administrator, enter:
sc config srv start = demand
2. Creating short file names should be disabled.
At the command prompt, as administrator, enter:
fsutil 8dot3name set 1
For a terminal server, it is necessary to reserve all user working directories. If a shared directory is organized on the server itself for the exchange and storage of important information, we copy it too. The best solution is to daily copy new data, and with a certain frequency (for example, once a month), create a complete archive.
Step 6. Testing
Testing consists of 3 main actions:
- Check Windows logs and make sure that there are no errors. In case of their detection, it is necessary to eliminate all problems.
- Follow the recommendations analyzer.
- Carry out a live test of the service from the user's computer.
Special port for connection
By default, port 3389 is used to connect to the terminal server via RDP. If you want the server to listen on a different port, open the registry and go to the branch:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE System CurrentControlSet Control Terminal Server WinStations RDP-Tcp
Find the key Portnumber and give it a decimal value equal to the desired port number:
You can also apply the command:
reg add "HKLM System CurrentControlSet Control Terminal Server WinStations RDP-Tcp" / v PortNumber / t REG_DWORD / d 3388 / f
* where 3388 - port number on which the terminal server will receive requests.
- Disk system
Disks should choose the most productive (SAS or SSD). Their volume should be selected according to the situation - depending on the space consumption by the software. MS SQL can consume more memory, since by default it is configured to occupy the entire operational panel with the contents of the databases.