The technique of cornering depends on the goals that the driver pursues. The difference is not only that it is necessary to overcome the road section safely or as quickly as possible, but also in the specifics of the road section on which maneuvering is carried out. Let's talk about how to get into a turn and about the technique of passing the bends of the road as a whole.
Why knowing the right path makes the rider faster
Newbies street racers on their cars do not try to enter turns like professional pilots, tend to become faster due to speed, imagining that they are on the race track. This is fundamentally the wrong approach, since the trajectory of the maneuver is crucial. There are also many factors to consider when approaching a bend.
The fundamental factor is radius. A car can maneuver over a large or small radius. The maximum trajectory allows you to overcome the turn faster while maintaining dynamics than when passing along the shortest path. At the same time, the high speed of the car during the maneuver makes it stable.
When driving on public roads, the main duty of each driver is to ensure their safety, as well as the safety of other road users. Therefore, it would be wrong to talk about a sharp, sporty driving style and speedy overcoming of bends. The cornering technique in the city, however, as well as on country roads, involves the implementation of only 2 rules:
- you need to stay within its band. Most likely, you observed a picture when drivers, turning at an intersection, cut a corner. This situation is extremely unsafe, since the intersection of the trajectories of movement. In other words, the turning driver partially drives into the oncoming lane. Of course, this hides the distance for braking for drivers moving towards the turning car,
- speed must be appropriate for the traffic situation. For drivers with a manual gearbox, it’s important to turn on the speed before starting to turn. You need to enter the turn at the speed that can be maintained in the arc without the risk of demolition or skidding of the car. In order to not have to use the skills of responding to drift or drift, you do not need to sharply slow down or accelerate in a turn (most of all this applies to the winter season and rain conditions, when the roadway is extremely slippery). Particular attention should be paid to “closed” protracted bends or areas that are not fully visible at the start of the maneuver. In both cases, the driver is not able to assess the situation at the end of the turn, and therefore the speed should be an order of magnitude lower. In this case, the driver reserves the opportunity to respond in time to the sudden appearance of an obstacle on the road.
On the theory of sports driving and how to be fast on the racetrack, more than a dozen books have been written. And all successful racers agree that the main thing when driving on a track is to start accelerating as quickly as possible in order to have a high maximum speed when approaching the next turn. The logic is quite simple: most of the racetrack is occupied by straight sections, and therefore the pilot will be faster who travels straight ahead in less time, and not the one who has great speed in cornering.
Even when entering a turn, thinking about how to start acceleration before the next bend is one of the main rules of driving on a racetrack.
Before considering the theory in more detail, it should be said that the rotation is divided into 3 zones:
- braking zone with an entry point to the arc. Separation into the braking zone and the zone of entry into the arc is allowed, but in general this is not important,
- an arc, which, in fact, is a turn. With respect to the arc, one should know about the apex - the point closest to the inner edge of the bend. If we are talking about a trajectory, then conditional points on an arc can be called an apex when the trajectory significantly changes its vector. So when discussing driving techniques you can hear about early or late apex,
- the exit zone from the turn, on which the car straightens and accelerates.
We hope that the need for a comfortable fit and proper hand position on the steering wheel is a matter of course. And therefore, pay attention to other important rules:
- it is necessary to brake to the point of entry into the turn. When braking, the car's weight is redistributed to the front axle, which makes the stern part more unstable. If you start to turn by pressing the brake pedal firmly, you will either provoke skidding or demolition if the front wheels become blocked in the arc by the braking force. When braking or a sharp discharge of gas, the front wheels are loaded due to the redistribution of weight, which gives an increase in the coefficient of adhesion to the roadway. In some situations, this effect can be used. It looks something like this - the driver directly at the entry point to the arc releases gas or sharply presses the brakes and at the same moment begins to enter the turn. For the correct implementation of such a trick, you need to feel the car well, and therefore, drivers without proper experience are not recommended to use this technique at high speeds,
- the arc must be rolled, first including the necessary gear. If the speed after the corner entry point is too high, slight braking is allowed. In no case should wheel lock be allowed. Here, many may recall rally racing, where pilots take turns in a spectacular skid. It should be remembered that the movement in a deep drift is always a waste of time when passing a section of the road. The rally, or rather the movement on dirt, snow surfaces, has its own specifics, which is a separate topic for discussion. When driving on asphalt, the fastest way to go through a turn is to use a rolling technique when the car moves without drifts, drifts or in a barely perceptible slip.
- as soon as you have touched the apex, in parallel with the measured straightening of the steering wheel to its original position, acceleration should begin. Press the gas pedal gently, gradually increasing the force to prevent skidding or demolition of the front axle. If during the acceleration process you did not have to reduce gas or sharply increase traction, you did everything right. Both in case of braking and in case of acceleration, the wheels should spin on the verge of turning. So you get the maximum coefficient of adhesion to the roadway.
Method 1, or 90 Degree Turn
Let's start with the first method, which implies the closest approach to the right side of the road, if a sharp turn goes to the left. Thus, you can significantly reduce the curvature of the trajectory and increase the reliability of the maneuver. It is not worth saying that if you need to turn right, you should get as close as possible to the left side of the road.
This method of passing a steep turn involves the knowledge of a term such as apex. What is apex? This is the point on the path that is closest to the inside of the turn. And when passing a steep turn, you should turn the car as close to the apex as possible, but so as not to catch the curb. The apex method is recommended only on a one-way road.
Passing a sharp turn, you need to brake as late as possible. When turning, you need to lightly press the brake to thereby prevent uncontrolled skidding. And you should slow down until the car slows down to the speed that will become safe for cornering. The driver must feel this speed. But you can’t slow down much, because the car can deviate from a safe trajectory.
If you go through a sharp turn at the apex, you should also apply little brake pressure, as this will slow down the movement of the front drive wheels, greatly improving their grip. The gas pedal should be depressed until the car goes straight. After passing the apex, you will need to add gas to level the machine.
Now about how to avoid accidents after passing a sharp turn. It is important to get out of the bend again as close to the right edge of the road as possible. This will increase the radius and align the trajectory as much as possible. In addition, it will allow you to move at the highest possible speed. In this case, the driver achieves maximum traction and does not interfere with rear-going vehicles.
Method 2, or 180 ° Turn (police drive)
In this case, you must move at a speed of 55-60 km / h - no more. Only such a speed can be considered safe during a sharp turn through 180 degrees. This type of turn is also called a police turn or a handbrake drive, since it involves connecting the parking brake. It is clear that such a reversal technique is not simple and is not intended for beginners.
Before you make a police turn, you should correctly position your hands on the steering wheel. They should be set in such a way as to easily scroll the steering wheel, making a complete revolution.
The video shows how the “police U-turn” is performed:
So, if you are going to turn right, you need to move your hand to the left (right). This makes it possible to turn the steering wheel much faster.
You need to start the turn by releasing the gas pedal. On cars with automatic transmission, you need to turn on the neutral position, on manual transmission - squeeze the clutch to the stop. And instantly turn the steering wheel in the direction of a turn, until the wheels are locked. Immediately after this, you must apply the parking brake. Thus, the rear wheels are blocked and this eliminates the possibility of uncontrolled skidding.
It is important at a time when the car is moving in the opposite direction, not to get confused. Align the vehicle with the steering wheel and release the parking brake.
A sharp turn has been completed, and if you need to get into the right lane, you need to slow down a bit. Press the brake pedal lightly, preventing skidding.
Method 3, or How to get a gentle, gentle bend
In this case, you must hold the steering wheel with both hands. We bend the car gently into the bend, acting carefully with the steering wheel and gently depressing the gas pedal.
It must be remembered that at such a moment, the more we press the gas pedal, the wider the trajectory, and the less gas there is, the steeper it will become. Therefore, in this case, the driver must control the turning radius. For example, if the car tends to turn too much, then the rear axle skids. At this point, you must completely release the gas pedal, and allow the steering wheel to slide a little in your hands. When the car starts to level out - gas can be added.
The video shows how to go through a sharp turn:
At the time of completion of the maneuver, it is necessary to add gas again, since the maneuver by the wheel at this moment is dangerous.
Steep Turn Sign
You can find out that there is a sharp turn ahead by a road sign. Therefore, you must always be careful and focused at the wheel. At such times, limited visibility can play a trick.
In general, the turn of the road is a very responsible section of the road for the driver, and especially in winter. As you know, at such a moment a centrifugal force acts on the car, striving to throw the car out of the way. At the same time, speed becomes the most faithful ally of centrifugal force. If the speed is doubled, then the centrifugal force is four.
The sign "A sharp turn of the road" is always installed on the roads, but still you need to be careful. In new traffic rules the “Dangerous Turn” sign refers to warning signs. Usually it is installed 100-300 meters before the turn, so that the driver can prepare for it. It is important to know that overtaking is prohibited when making a sharp turn, but overtaking is allowed on the road from the sign to the start of the turn.
And in conclusion, I would like to wish all drivers good luck on the road and constant concentration. Driving a car is first of all a big responsibility, and only then pleasure - remember this!
If the goal is to show the best lap time, you must use the width of the road to the maximum. To get through the turn as quickly as possible, you need to move along the smallest radius from the entry point to the exit point. In other words, at the entry point you begin to turn to the apex, after passing the apex, you need to start straightening, which will end at the exit point straight. This is the description of the ideal trajectory when driving on a racetrack. But there are extreme situations in which the trajectory of movement undergoes changes to obtain benefits:
- late entry. In this case, the apex moves away towards the outer edge of the rotation, and therefore, when moving toward the apex, the trajectory is more straightforward. Late apex allows you to start straightening earlier, and, therefore, acceleration. This gives a significant advantage if there is a long straight section behind the bend,
- early entry. Cutting the entry arc is used when overtaking the enemy on the track. The driver begins to slow down later, heading towards the apex at a large angle, therefore, covering a smaller distance. This allows you to block the ideal trajectory of the enemy and forces him to move to the outer edge of the turn.
If the bend of the road has a complex shape, there can be several apexes in the arc.
A bunch of several turns
If the turns are located so that the exit point from one turn is immediately the entry point to another bend of the road, then the trajectory should be constructed so as to have maximum speed at the exit from the last turn. That is, we sacrifice the ideal trajectory of the ligament previous to the last bend in order to have an optimal trajectory at the exit of the last turn.
To tell about all the intricacies of racing maneuvering in one article is an impossible task. For all those interested in the theory of automobile racing and driving, in particular, we recommend articles and books by the master of sports and the USSR champion in motor racing, Mikhail Gorbachev.