How to develop a child’s speech? How to form and develop communication skills in children?
Communication skills begin to form in a child from birth. At the preverbal stage of communication, the baby makes contact with the outside world through emotions, facial expressions, gestures copied from adult parents. The wider the spectrum of the latter is shown by relatives, the more opportunities a child subsequently has to “identify” an emotion, object, process or action.
An actively developing emotional sphere stimulates the onset of speech in young children. Curiosity, the thirst for testing new emotions drive their desire to constantly imitate adults. Mom and dad at this stage in the development of the child is the first and only encyclopedia of knowledge about the world. Shared emotions bring parents and their children together like nothing else. Soon, the kids begin to miss the emotional coloring of their silent dialogues.
Trying to be understood by the most important person in life, the kids gradually begin to improve their speech abilities, simultaneously satisfying their natural curiosity. At this stage, it is simply necessary to be in constant contact with the adult crumb, because the child makes every new step in speech development thanks to the parent, gradually copying intonations first, and then individual sounds, syllables, words, speech stamps and turns. Sometimes kids imperceptibly adopt the way of thinking of their adult teachers and their communication standards. It is not for nothing that there is a saying that an apple does not fall far from an apple tree. Indeed, psychologists confirm - not far. If the mother is taciturn and stingy with diminutive and affectionate epithets, and the baby is likely to choose a “cool-detached” communication style for himself. At the same time, the child will surely learn for himself and remember for the future a couple of stamps necessary for communication in order to build their relations with others on their basis. Cleverly manipulating a pair of short but meaningful phrases, you can actually communicate without emotional involvement. Such a trick is good for a working atmosphere, but, unfortunately, it does not work in relations between relatives.
Unable to “identify” a whole range of shades of emotions, the baby will demonstrate inertness of thinking, in different situations, using the same established phrase, just like his parents did. The poverty of fantasy in this case will guarantee a clear division into “white” and “black”, without admission to a compromise “gray” option. It will not be easy to agree with such a child, because he already has an answer to everything. The attitude to people in such children is not only restrained, but also suspicious (especially to those open crumbs in which the mouth does not close).
When the parents are very emotional with the child, most likely the style of communication of the latter will become the exact opposite. A pet caressed by a baby has so many emotions, they want to share right and left! “Oh, the leaf fell, oh, the car drove through!”, - the kid notices everything around and tries to share the discovery, discuss it with a loved one, friend, acquaintance.
The need for discussion is that necessary basis for building a quality dialogue. In turn, high-quality dialogue is the type of communication that allows you to build speech openly, impartially, at your own discretion, with the aim of hearing someone else's opinion and sharing your own. This is not the kind of communication when the baby repeats the phrases he has learned with the parent: “Hello. Glad to meet you, Lesha. ". If you want, a high-quality children's dialogue is an opportunity to test joint emotions. When one person gives an impulse, and the second this impulse captures and develops. Feedback is always traced. It is to this type of communication that a child should approach at the age of 2.5 years.
At this time, the baby does not just play next to the children, conducting its independent activities, it tries to interact, using speech means.
If the child is healthy and the parents spend enough time communicating with the baby, then the ability to have a good voice dialogue in the child appears in 2-3 years. About 2 years old, most kids make their first attempts to communicate with each other, begin to get acquainted, participate in simple joint games (on the playground, in the sandbox), including those initiated by adults. Yes, it is possible while they are more closely looking at each other or sharing toys, but who said that everything will happen instantly! The development of communication skills takes a lot of time. Parenting time including.
At the age of 2.5-3.5 years, kids themselves can become a ringleader in any game, having gathered a team of friends around them. They can, but often feel shy or abstain for other reasons, one of which is a banal lack of communication experience in the team.
Often the main problem for children entering kindergarten is the lack of basic communication skills. This problem is especially relevant for “home” boys and girls, whose experience in building communication was limited to the home circle of communication. At the same time, a home circle of friends is distinguished by a number of specific features:
■ the absence of the need to initiate acquaintance, and sometimes the communication itself,
■ lack of need to resolve conflict situations.
In other words, this is such a greenhouse option, an ideal communication model. Meanwhile, we all understand that sooner or later a child will have to leave this circle: in front of him is a school, institute or college, finally. Throughout life you will have to communicate with different people. And the flexibility and ease of this communication sometimes determines the presence of experience. Moreover, the experience has been consistently built up, timely passed in human life. At the age of 3-5 years, when the baby has already mastered a number of stable behavioral cliches, it will be more difficult for the baby to absorb new information, rebuilding his fully formed stereotypes of behavior. In addition, this age is distinguished by a certain timidity, which also does not contribute to the development of communication skills. Therefore, five-year-olds who fell into kindergarten later than their peers very often remain timid and shy among their peers, and even more so adults.
It is believed that in healthy young children, cognitive interest should overcome fear and constraint. But this is far from always the case. Because doctors, calculating the norms, often do not take into account the fact that some babies are practically deprived of communication in the first years of life. Fearing infections, mothers walk with their crumbs away from the playgrounds, and guests who come to the house are in every way protected from communicating with the child for the same reason.
Tied to strollers, children are not only unable to communicate with peers, but also to explore the world around them, to satisfy their curiosity. In some cases, such a fence of the child from the contacts he needs can serve as an occasion to state a developmental delay, including communication skills, and speech abilities.
As a result, the baby may have less acute respiratory infections or the flu (and even that at first), but his communication skills leave much to be desired. Communicate with your family and build relationships with peers - you see, absolutely different things. Moreover, if the baby is shy by nature, he will need long-term help in establishing communication.
Meanwhile, expanding the circle of friends becomes very important already in the second year of life of the crumbs. If the first year and a half of the baby was surrounded by the home environment and the circle of people familiar to him (which certainly benefited him), then closer to 2-3 years, this space becomes categorically insufficient for the child to satisfy his curiosity and broaden his horizons.
The main stages of the development of communication of a preschooler
The development of child communication has been studied by many psychologists. The classification of M.I. Lisina, which distinguishes forms of communication depending on needs, motives, and means used, is considered the most optimal.
From birth, the child needs the friendly attention of his parents. Since speech at this stage is not yet developed, the child attracts attention with facial expressions, gestures. If a child does not receive this attention, he develops anxiety, and a constant lack of communication with an adult often leads to problems in the preschool development of the child.
It occurs around the age of six months and remains the leading up to three years. It is characterized by the need for cooperation with an adult, as a result of which the child constantly turns to him for help or approval. At the same time, if until a year and a half the child is just waiting for help, in the future he prefers to try and act independently. Situational-business form of communication is a preparation for the formation of active speech of the child.
It acts as the main form for a period of 3 to 5 years. At this age, the child wants to learn as much as possible about the world around him, and as a rule, the adult becomes the source of this knowledge. Questions are not tied to a specific situation - to ask why the grass is green, the child can also when there is snow outside the window. Help the child get answers to all questions, because this is how he builds his understanding of the world and its various manifestations.
It occurs in 5-7 years and is the highest form of communication for preschoolers. The center here is no longer the phenomena of the world, but the characteristics of interpersonal relationships. The child is ready to learn and understand what sensations another person may experience, what he thinks, and depending on this, establish relationships with a wide variety of people. At this age, the child draws attention to how an adult authoritative for him evaluates the actions of others, considering him an example for his own behavior.
Your communication with the child
The development of communication in children is completely related to how they communicate with him in the family, starting from birth. Communication with parents affects several factors at once. First of all, the child perceives their speech as a role model, replenishing his passive vocabulary and observing articulation movements. How quickly the child speaks will directly depend on how his parents communicate with him. The appearance of speech is possible only in a communication situation.
An important role in the formation of the child's worldview is played by intra-family communication. Children who patiently explained what is good and what is bad, while reinforcing words with their own behaviors, have a clearer system of moral principles than in the absence of such communication. Therefore, for the full and harmonious development of the child, parents always need to find time to communicate with him, answers to questions relating to different areas of life, including personal relationships. Confidential communication not only has a beneficial effect on development, but also helps to smooth out the manifestations of age-related crises.