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Who are skinheads: neo-Nazis or teenage subculture

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The media often use the word skinheads, and in the vast majority of cases it carries a negative connotation. We will not allow ourselves superficial judgments and we will figure out who they are and why, in the minds of the British, a skinhead is still more often dressed in Crombie or Harrington than in a familiar bomber jacket.

As we told in a previous article (see), in the sixties the youth of Great Britain was subdued by the image of fashion - a young esthete, hedonist and dandy.

In the second half of the decade, several paths for the development of this image were outlined. The world of music was captured by a wave of psychedelia, and fashion could not stay away. Parties became a real kaleidoscope of surreal patterns and bright colors. A completely different style was developed for themselves by young people, who began to be called “hard mods,” (English “hard mods”). It was simpler, more practical and strongly contrasted with the images of bohemia.

It cannot be argued that this was a deliberate opposition to fashion. The differences between hard mods and representatives of the “golden youth” and creative intelligentsia were natural: the difference at the level of the social environment led to a difference in tastes and outlook on life. However, by the end of the 60s, it became more visible inside the subculture itself. Those mods that were rampant during the famous pogroms in the south of Great Britain in the mid-60s can be safely considered hard mods. They loved to fight, were engaged in thefts and robbery, carried cold steel weapons and often united in real gangs. These were young people born after the war.

The teenage age of this generation came at a time when the difficulties of the war and post-war years were left behind: you could live without thinking only about how to feed and restore the country. The fashion revolution of the sixties, focused on teenagers, began. Everyone wanted to keep up with the times. Around there was a lot of music, clubs and stylish clothes, and all this could become yours - there would be money!

The British economy, which was gaining momentum, provided jobs, making it possible to honestly save up for a stylish suit and scooter. One could go the easier way - crime in all its manifestations helped to get money for new clothes, drugs and trips to the most fashionable clubs in the city. On Friday night, fashion behaved like life-goers, pop idols and people from high society, but the day was coming, and many of them again had to go to work or look for illegal earnings.

“They called me a hard-mod ... the media seized on the pogroms story [the famous clash of mods with rockers in the south of England in 1964] and described the mods as a crazy crowd of drug addicts prone to violence and unrest. Of course, in the rubbish that the newspapers wrote, there was a grain of truth. Among the mods were those who went to Brighton, Margaret and other cities just to make a complete mess there. I must admit, I was among them.

Reputation was everything. I started to carry a weapon (ax) and was ready to use it if necessary ... Appearance was very important - everyone around was literally obliged to wear a woolen suit "

British hard fashion of the late 60s, London

The fact is that, despite the desire for elitism, the origins of the mod movement largely lay in the working environment. The poor and disadvantaged areas of south London were home to many mods and ordinary teens who, with their age-specific vibrancy, absorbed urban culture.

Brixton - one of these areas - included an extensive Jamaican diaspora. The economic downturn, the wave of crime, the hurricane that devastated eastern Jamaica in 1944, and the promise of jobs from the British government attracted immigrants from the Caribbean to London. The sharp influx of foreigners from a distant country played a crucial role in the transformation of hard mods into skinheads. In 1962, the former British colony gained independence, but such a large-scale political event could not but have negative consequences for the population. Many Jamaicans continued to emigrate to the former metropolis.

In a new place, Jamaican youth introduced their London peers to their culture. The island had its own subculture: ore battles (English rude boys) were literally “rude guys”, but in Jamaican English they were rather “tough”, “harsh”. Rude fights were from the working class and often showed violence towards each other and others. Their life was not easy, because often they grew up in the most disadvantaged areas of Kingston, the capital of a not so calm country. Like many young people, all the more impudent and often implicated in crime, ore fights sought to be worn with a needle: suits, narrow ties, trilby hats and flogging hats. Perhaps this style was inspired by US jazz musicians. Rud fights preferred the freshest and most modern local music: ska, and then rocksteady.

Ska is a musical genre that originated in Jamaica at the turn of the fifties and sixties. The combination of American rhythm and blues with the Caribbean styles of mento and calypso led to the emergence of a completely new and very distinctive sound.

In the second half of the sixties, ska music evolved into rocksteady. Compared to its predecessor, this style is distinguished by its slow tempo, syncopated bass and the use of small bands with electric bass (the early ska groups were large ensembles and mainly used double bass). The most important ska groups and performers were and remain Toots and The Maytals, The Skatalites, Bob Marley and the Wailers (the leader of the latter became one of the most recognizable musicians in history), The Upsetters (the group of the famous producer Lee “Scratch” Perry), Derrick Morgan , Max Romeo, Prince Buster, Desmond Dekker and many others.

So, in the wake of emigration, the youth culture of Jamaica came to the shores of Misty Albion. It is not surprising that due to their close age, love of music and the desire to look interesting, the English guys began to adopt the style of battle ores. Fashion traditionally loved American soul and rhythm and blues, but was also very interested in Jamaican music. A huge merit in this belongs to the English label "Melodisc Records", founded in 1949 and released African-Caribbean music. The company began recording Jamaican musicians in London and, building on the success of these recordings, founded the Blue Beat Records division. It specialized in the beloved ores of fights, mods, and then skinhead music of ska and rocksteady.


One of the most outstanding musicians with whom the label collaborated was Prince Buster - a man who made a huge contribution to the formation of ska and the popularization of the genre in the UK.

The youth of south London with great interest visited clubs designed for Jamaicans, called "ska-bars", learned to dance ska and adopted elements of style. Records with African American and Caribbean music scattered in stores like hotcakes.

Thus, when in the late sixties part of the mods began to gravitate to psychedelic music, the mods of south London already had a special connection with the music of Jamaica, and hard mods did not follow the bohemian. The indigenous inhabitants of London and immigrants, hard fashions and ore fights merged into a subculture, which they began to call skinheads (English - “skinheads”). The name of the subculture is made up of two words: “skin” - “skin” and “head” - “head”. There is a version that this word was taken from the vocabulary of American foot soldiers.

“... Fashion and music have changed. Strange music began to play in clubs like The Byrds and Jimi Hendrix, and the mods had no choice but to go to Jamaican clubs - only there they did not stop playing black music. So, the mods went to ska clubs and adopted the style of rudboys, but since they were not black, they could not call themselves that, so they borrowed the word “skinheads” by which they called the US Marine recruits, who shaved their heads when they went to the army. In the Marine Corps, only officers called the “skinhead” only, like: “Hey, shaven-headed, come here!” So initially the skinhead style was a white version of the rudboy style. ”

These people farther and farther away from the refinement of mods, and after a few decades, the connection between the two subcultures was hardly traced. But let us dwell in more detail on the first generation skinheads, the so-called Traditional Skinheads.

What did they look like? To the usual for mods (English “Sta-Prest”), which kept their shape perfectly, a few more no less practical elements were added: jeans, suspenders and heavy work boots. Haircuts are shorter and easier. Some, in the fashion of ores of fights or of the practicality of workers, shaved almost baldly. Skinheads wore mohair beloved mods and hard mods, but with a slightly elongated style, and button-down plaid shirts, the collar of which is fixed with buttons.

The classic and famous bomber MA-1 was very popular, which later became an icon of the image of the subculture and, in fact, its synonym. Hard skinhead mods and jackets have not disappeared from the wardrobe. Among the outerwear, the windbreaker was also a success - a cotton semi-sports bomber jacket with fringing stripes on the collar, sleeves and elastic at the bottom, as well as a work jacket of British dockers.

An interesting detail was the manner of tucking trousers. First, lightly so that the shoes are visible, then stronger, to show colored socks taken from the style of fighting ores. According to the recollections of those years, once the concert organizers gave the famous reggae singer Desmond Decker a suit, and he asked to shorten the pants by fifteen centimeters. In imitation of their idol, teens began to tuck their pants. Not to mention that to a certain extent Mr. Dekker also contributed to the fashion for short haircuts among future skinheads who were enthusiastic about him.

Skinheads are members of a subculture that arose in London among the working class in the 1960s and spread throughout the world. Unfortunately, many people equate the word “skinhead” with “racism”, but this movement was connected with the values ​​of the working class, with the bright style of rude Jamaican guys and the British worldview, in fact, many of the first skinheads were black. Over time, the skinhead's style and politics has split into several subgroups based around different ideals that can be overwhelming for a novice when talking. If you want to understand the differences between the types of skinheads and begin to lead their lifestyle, then see Step 1.

Accept the beliefs

Know the difference between different political sectors. Skinhead politics exists in several forms, from neo-Nazism to political apathy. Many skinhead groups focus on music or working rights and have nothing to do with racism. Before you decide to become a skinhead, you must understand the differences in the political sectors of this group of people:

  • Anti-racist (skinheads who are against racial prejudice or SHARPs) skinheads are aggressively opposed to neo-Nazism and racism, although they do not always take this position on other political issues. The SHARP tag is sometimes used to describe all anti-racist skinheads, even if they are not members of the SHARP organization.
  • Apolitical, centrist or anti-political skinheads keep their political views outside the skinheads subculture. They have a sense of working pride, but not in a political sense. Most traditional skinheads or “trojans” fit this category.
  • Left-wing skinheads are anti-racist and anti-fascist groups adopting a militant pro-working and socialist position. The most famous organizations in this category are the Red and Anarchist Skinheads (RASH).
  • Right-wing skinheads are usually conservative and patriotic, but not always extreme and fascist. This type of skinhead is very common in the United States.
  • White power or neo-Nazi skinheads are racists, extremely nationalistic and highly political. Despite the common name, many neo-Nazi skinheads have nothing to do with traditional skinheads in terms of style or interests. SHARPs and traditional skinheads often call them boneheads or Hammerskins (which are a specific organization, as well as a general term). Racist skinheads are found mainly in prisons, as part of the Aryan Brotherhood or other gangs superior to the white race.

Understand the different styles of skinheads. Before you call yourself a skinhead, it is important to have an idea of ​​the different types of skinheads that relate to the working class, music and culture, and not just to politics. Once you have decided on the skinhead style and political affiliation, you can begin to search for a sect that is closer to you. You can read more about skinheads in the second section of the article. Here are a few types of skinheads based on their style and interests:

  • Traditional skinheads. These skinheads are also known as Trojans or Trojans. They do not believe in political and racial prejudices, which do not play a central role in the subculture and are focused on music or culture, and not on them. They also consider themselves the first skinheads to focus on pro-worker rights and perceptions of music in the 1960s. They carry a silk scarf in their breast pocket, pocket lighters, patches that symbolize their beliefs, or buttons-badges.
  • Oi! skins and punk skinheads. These skinheads scream Oi! And listen to punk music. They are known for their tattoos, short haircuts and high boots, tight clothes and flying jackets. Real Oi! the groups are largely based on pro-working beliefs, although today the political beliefs of such skinheads carry a wide range.
  • Hardcore skins. This group of skinheads originates in the United States. They are part of hardcore punk music, which includes bands like Sheer Terror, Murphy's Law and Warzone. Their appearance is more casual: buggy pants, windbreakers and sweatshirts.

Decide on your beliefs. You can become a skinhead for some political reasons or you can completely avoid this. Whatever you choose, look at what is closer to your beliefs and faith. Find a group of skinheads in your area and make sure your beliefs match with them. Do not be influenced by the fact that you are convinced that for you is not significant and not genuine.

  • Once you have decided what kind of skinhead you want to be, you should conduct your investigation. If your type of skinhead focuses on faith in music, whether ska, reggae or hardcore punk, then you should go to concerts, listen to albums and do everything possible to be in the subject, so that you could not be called a poser.
  • As a rule, skinheads abstain from hard drugs, so if you choose to be just such a skinhead, you should also completely abandon them.
  • Skinheads are known to live off honest and conscientious work. Think about whether you can.

Be prepared to defend your beliefs. When people see you dress like a skinhead, some may automatically assume that you are a neo-Nazi or a supporter of the superiority of the white race. Like it or not, be prepared to calmly and rationally talk to them about your beliefs. When people see that you are a skinhead, they can make many erroneous assumptions about you.

  • Be prepared for the consequences of your appearance, have an accurate plan to explain who you are, what you believe in and why. If you are not a racist, it may take some effort to explain to people who have some misconceptions regarding skinheads that your movement was not originally racist.

Accept the image

Cut or shave your hair. Traditionally, since the 1960s, skinheads have been defined by a short haircut or a shaved head. However, not all skinheads did this. Among some groups, Iroquois and high shaved haircuts are common. If you decide to shave your hair, then use a machine with 2 or 3 levels. Now many skinheads do not shave their heads with a machine, some of them even do it with a blade. In addition, most skinheads do not wear a beard, mustache or other facial hair.

  • Some skinheads were known for their neatly trimmed whiskers.
  • Skinhead girls wore short haircuts in the 1960s, and then, in the 1980s, they began to flaunt with a feather haircut when the hair is shorter in the middle of the head and long strands hang in front, back and sides that give a feathered look. Some skinhead girls even completely shaved off their hair and left only bangs or strands in front.
  • Some believe that initially, when skinheads shaved their heads in 1960, it was a rebellion against a hippie culture, among which long hair was common at the time.

Wear the right skirts and trousers. Straight dark blurry jeans with rolled-up cuffs (to show boots) are common among many men's skinhead groups. Among these groups, Lee or Wrangler jeans were common. Плоские брюки и отбеливатель (отбеливатель брызгали на брюки, чтобы рисунок напоминал камуфляж), а также BDU боевые брюки или отрезные шорты были популярны среди панков и Oi! скинхедов. Девушки скинхеды носили такие же брюки с добавлением камуфляжа или клетчатые мини юбки, обычные юбки и ажурные чулки.

Носите трикотажные рубашки. Грузчики из рабочего класса в Великобритании были первыми скинхедами, поэтому их теплые трикотажные свитера стали основой моды скинхедов. V-neck sweaters with long sleeves or vests were usually worn over button-down shirts or a contrast t-shirt. Button-down cardigans were preferred among skinhead girls. When the skinhead movement arose, they could not afford expensive things and all their money was spent on good jackets and elegant clothes to go to the club in it.

Try adding braces or braces. Some skinheads wear suspenders or curly buckles over their shirts. They can be of various colors and patterns, but usually from half to an inch wide. If your suspenders are wider, then you will look like skinheads of the White Power, or you just don’t know what you are doing.

Wear a coat or sweatshirt. Harrington jackets, with a red, plaid lining and Bomber flight jackets, black or olive, the most popular clothing among skinheads. A sheepskin coat, a dark or checkered coat is also suitable. Donkey jackets, with or without PVC shoulders, belong to British dockers and are also fashionable among skinheads. In addition, dark pullovers or zipped sweatshirts usually wear several different groups at once.

Wear skinhead shoes. Again, since the first skinheads were dockers, army men or berets remain skinheads' favorite shoes. Dr. Martens (aka Docs, Doc Martens or DMS) boots and boots are a favorite choice for men and women. Several skinheads also wear Adidas samba. Moccasins, monkey boots and old bowling shoes are also popular. For the most part, men and women skinheads wear the same kind of shoes.

Add shoelaces. Shoes and other shoes, usually all with ties, with loose laces. Simply put, black is the best choice for shoelaces, as white shoelaces on black boots often mean that you are Hammerskin (skinhead of white power). The color designation depends on the region, but as a rule, white shoelaces mean belonging to white power, but old-skinned skinheads believe that conclusions can be drawn about a skinhead’s belief in the color of his shoelaces (they call it “lace-up”) the lot of “Karlans” (so-called newcomers in move).

  • Look for local skinheads. You can find them at ska, hardcore or punk concerts.
  • If you shaved your head or cut your hair as short as possible, be sure to grab your hair at the back of your head.
  • Some skinheads have many tattoos, sleeves are especially popular. Wait at least 6 months after becoming a skinhead, and think carefully before applying ink to your body.
  • If you don’t want to get into the center of the slam, which usually forms at punk or hardcore concerts, stick to the edge of the room. Otherwise, remember that they are wearing heavy boots with metal socks, and do not get confused under their feet.

Perhaps you have met groups of youth with shaved heads, in identical black jeans and collarless camouflage jackets, in high army boots, with the flag of a slave-owning Confederation sewn on their sleeves? These are skinheads, or, otherwise, skinheads. They call themselves the short word skins. Now almost no one writes about them, but among teenagers in big cities they are already a legend.

The first skinheads appeared in England in 1968. Current followers would be surprised to learn that their predecessors got along well with mulattos and blacks. The fact is that skins appeared as a working, not a racial subculture, directed against both the official culture and in spite of many alternative currents. For example, they considered the rockers to be “fake,” because they were a road storm only on weekends, and worked hard in the office on weekdays. Whom the skinheads did not like - that is the “packs” (Pakistanis). And not as foreigners, but as traders. And the blacks and Arabs, who worked with skinheads in the same factories, were their guys for them.

Skinheads of the “first wave” got along well with mulattos and blacks

The first skinheads were not skinheads in the literal sense of the word, just their short haircuts with tanks contrasted with fashionable then long hair. The clothing style was not “militaristic”, but proletarian: coarse-haired jackets or a short coat with a leather yoke, coarse trousers with an “eternal arrow”, a long “knee-length” jacket, knee-high and heavy durable high boots of construction workers and dockers. No followers of the first skinheads were found, and by 1973, when the guys had matured and started families, the movement came to naught.

Skinheads of the “first wave”, 60s of XX century

Skinheads revived in the late 70s, when the Margaret Thatcher government liquidated entire sectors of the economy, which led to an unprecedented increase in unemployment and unrest in the so-called depressed regions. New skins were no longer a working aristocracy, but a declassified environment, they were brought up not on relaxed reggae, but on aggressive punk rock. These guys beat all immigrants indiscriminately because they "occupied their jobs." Neo-Nazi ideologists worked with the new skinheads. There were skin clubs, for the first time the slogan “Let's keep Britain white!”

“Let's keep Britain white!” - the “second wave” skinhead slogan

Then the “first wave” skinheads got out of their apartments, furious that their movement began to be associated with the Nazis. The fights between the "old" and "new" skinheads took on the character of street riots (especially in Glasgow). The result of these clashes was the emergence of two skin movements - on the one hand, Nazi-skins ("new"), on the other - "red-skins", "red skins" ("old"). Outwardly, red skins differed only in stripes with portraits of Lenin, Mandela, Che Guevara and sometimes red laces in boots. They gained distribution in England, France, Poland, Spain. Nazi-skins took root in Germany, Holland, Scandinavia, Canada, the USA, and later in France, Denmark, and Belgium.


Hoxton Tom McCourt, bass player for The 4-Skins, 1977

In Germany, Germany became the outpost of the Nazi-skin movement

In America, there were groups of white skinheads, Negro skinheads, Puerto Rican skinheads, Jewish skinheads, Hispanic skinheads. In Germany, the Nazis were famous not only for the beating of migrant workers (foreign workers, mainly Turks and Kurds), but also for their murders. At the same time, judges who were more afraid of the “red terror” showed rare favor to the skinheads (in the 80s in Germany, skins were only once convicted for the murder of the Turkish Ramadan Avsi in the summer of 1986).

Skinheads, meanwhile, turned into a political force: they smashed anti-fascists and dealt with trade unions. The authorities realized who they were dealing with when, in 1987, in Lindau, skins attacked Christian believers during a church holiday in St. Stephen's Cathedral (the city authorities refused to provide a municipal hall for the skinhead congress). The Vatican intervened, the skinheads were pressed by the police.

Skinheads appeared in Russia in the early 90s

But soon the Berlin Wall collapsed, and the ranks of skinheads increased at the expense of Germans from East Germany, where unemployment and despair reigned among young people. German neo-fascists began to be considered all over the world as "specialists" in working with young people, and Germany of the 90s was sadly famous for the arsons of immigrant dormitories.

After the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, skinheads appeared in Poland, the Czech Republic, Croatia, Bulgaria and Russia.

Russian skinheads today: groupings, the basis of worldview and ideology, practices, the opinion of priests, opposition to their activities, etc.

A letter came to the site “Mercy.ru”: “My neighbor’s mother teaches students from Asian countries at Moscow State University. Each lesson they tell her about the next attacks on Asians, about which the television no longer reports. It doesn’t reach those who are on the market ( there are a lot of them, they can give change), and for students who are caught by the hostels and made disabled or killed. And no one stands up for them! Nobody will help them in our "Orthodox" capital. After all, even Orthodox now organize rallies along with skins. "

Officially they are not

After unprincipled or simply unreasonable commentators, some unscrupulous or simply unreasonable commentators started talking about the “link” of a number of Moscow gay clubs, where, indeed, skinheads (or rather, members of the ultranationalist Russian nationwide union, including many skins) and believers (according to testimonies of participants and eyewitnesses, mainly parishioners of the church of St. Nicholas on Bersenevka) spoke on one side of the barricades.

After the rallies against the gay parade in Moscow, they began to talk about "Orthodox skins." But the skinheads who staged a mass brawl then were declared "Orthodox" only because grandmothers with icons and the Union of Orthodox Baptist Protestors protested with them. According to eyewitnesses - the head of the Lyubertsy branch of the Movement Against Illegal Immigration, Sergei Lapshin, each of these groups came to the rally on May 27-28 by itself.

And yet, indeed, some of the skinheads call themselves Orthodox. How can this be - after all, they are involved in beating and killing people? We decided to find out who these modern skins are and can they be related to Orthodoxy?

Our law enforcement source said that information on racially motivated crimes was closed to free access even for the employees themselves. Officially, it is believed that, for example, there are no more skinheads in Moscow. But this is not true. As one of the skinheads told Mercy.ru correspondent, after the police “sweeps” that have been growing since the beginning of 2000, skinheads in Moscow went underground and try not to openly declare themselves.

According to sociologist Alexander Tarasov, now in Russia there are over 65 thousand (plus or minus 5 thousand) skinheads living in 90 cities. Most of all - in Moscow, St. Petersburg and the surrounding area. The skinhead movement (in some regions they call themselves “skinheads”) is a rather diverse area without a common organizing center. We received detailed information about skinheads from themselves.

Mostly these are people aged 18 to 25 years (although there are older ones), most of them work or study (and also combine both) in higher and secondary educational institutions. The vast majority are children from socially prosperous families. They communicate with each other within small, usually groups of three to five people (but there are also groups of up to 50 people). In some regions, skins come to help each other to conduct "power actions". They are conditionally divided into "senior" and "junior" (in some cases by age, in others, "elders" are selected by voting). Sometimes such a division may be absent. The "elders" carry out organizational functions, in particular, establish contacts with each other at the level of different cities.

Skinheads reluctantly "shine" themselves. Perhaps this is a fear of the police and anti-fascists, or maybe it's a shame, but in the photos posted on the Internet they prefer to hide their faces

Nazi skinheads profess a racist ideology, call themselves "right", "warriors", "stormtroopers". They are in the bulk and arrange "power actions", i.e. beating, if it seems to them that the "stranger" guilty, for example, of rape, managed to escape justice. They also beat “for prevention” so that “newcomers” would not feel like masters in a particular region. Go in for sports (boxing, karate, kickboxing, etc.). Some, in conditions of strict conspiracy, hold fights - wall to wall (without knives, chains, brass knuckles, etc., only on fists), "to gain experience in a mass brawl." Their fights are sometimes recorded in a video that is sold to foreigners. Gyms are rented for the proceeds.

A variation - fascist skinheads using Hitler symbols and sharing Hitler’s ideas.

Read also on the topic of youth subcultures:

  • Goths - quasi-religious youth subculture
  • Neopaganism and nationalism (Eastern European area) - Victor Shnirelman
  • Rodnoverie as a way to accept Islam - Konstantin Krylov
  • Caution - The Temptation by Pseudo-Orthodoxy - selection of publications

It turns out that there are anti-fascist skinheads (or S.H.A.R.P.) whose purpose is to beat Nazi skinheads, which they constantly do. Sometimes wear badges with the abbreviation S.H.A.R.P. (Skinheads Against Racial Prejudices - skinheads against racial prejudices) and numbers 4 and 6 (the fourth and sixth letter of the Latin alphabet - destroy fascism).

According to S. Lapshin, anti-fascist skinheads in Ivanovo can be distinguished by yellow laces on boots, and in St. Petersburg by green. Anti-fascists are also “red” (that is, “left” by conviction) skinheads, red prevails in their clothes.

There are still skinheads-mods - they just like to look externally like skinheads. And skinheads of “politics” are the names of DPNI, RONS (Russian National Union) and others who have joined nationalist social movements.

Porridge in the head

All our sources (police, sociologists, specialists in youth movements) have confirmed that most Nazi skinheads are pagans. As the skins from Rostov the Great said, they want to plant a generic oak and are trying to revive the cult of Veles, the god of fertility (tribes of the Slavs who lived in the region bowed to him). In part, the worldview of skinheads is formed on the basis of neopagan literature ("The Blow of the Russian Gods," etc.), nationalist literature, the Internet, and odious newspapers ("I am Russian"). Hitler's Mine Kampf is required in the "library" of right-wing skins.

One of the slogans of the skins: "Faith disconnects, blood unites." The choice of religion is a private matter. Among the skins there are atheists and those who call themselves Orthodox (according to some experts, there are about 15-20% of such people in the Moscow region).

We found the skins themselves and personally talked with them to understand what they believe in. They managed to get to know one of the Moscow "right" on the street during the rally. Peter is 23 years old, lives in Moscow, works as a manager, studies in economics

History of skinheads

First of all, let's indicate one point. Skinheads are a subculture. Yes, yes, the same subculture as punk movement, goths, emo and so on. But do not confuse the "skins" with everyone else. The skinhead subculture is radically different from any other culture that has arisen under the influence of music. It all began, of course, in England, in good old London. Which is not surprising - the calm and arrogant British are famous for their ability to found wild and violent youth movements. Maybe they just got tired of being stiff and cold? Who knows. But it is not important. So, the movement of skinheads (skinheads, leather heads - Eng.) Started from the 60s of the twentieth century in poor working districts. And it came from the very popular movement of mods (modernist, or, as they were also called, dudes), the movement of teddy boys (and in Russian Gopniks) and football hooligans. They wore heavy construction boots, heavy docker jackets - donks, army t-shirts and jeans with suspenders. Doesn’t resemble anything? Quite right, the clothing style of the modern skin was formed at the dawn of movement. It was typical clothing of a London hard worker who earned his bread with hard physical labor. A shaved head - a classic skin identification - served as protection against excess dirt and dust accumulating in the docks, as well as harmful insects such as lice. In general, heads are often not shaved, but only trimmed under the "hedgehog." The nickname "skinhead" in those days was offensive, humiliating, so labeled hard workers.

The first skins respected (!) Blacks and Mulattos. Not surprisingly, there were many immigrants among the workers of that time. Skins and visitors from Jamaica had common views, listened to the same music, in particular reggae and ska. The movement of football hooligans had a very big influence on the skin movement. In many ways, it was him who owed skins to bomber jackets, which made it easy to slip out of the opponent’s hands during a street scuffle, shaved head, thanks to which it was impossible to grab the bully by the hair. Of course, skin youth had a lot of trouble with the police. What is characteristic, both boys and girls participated in the movement. It will not be superfluous to note that, like all football fans, skinheads liked to spend time in a pub over a mug of foam.

But time goes on, people grow up, and the first wave of skins began to decline by the beginning of the 70s. The skinheads began to start families and slowly forget about the former exuberant lifestyle. However, nothing goes unnoticed, and England is already exploding in a wave of wild and aggressive music - punk rock. This style was ideally suited to working youth who were looking for tougher music for their movement. Street punk appeared - an excellent solution for skins, which with the light hand of an English newspaper scribbler was instilled the name "Oi!" The style was different from punk - it was a classic guitar riffs superimposed on a distinctly audible line of bass and drums. The chorus was like the cries of fans in the stands (hello to the hooligans!). With music, additions to clothing came - the second-wave skins began to wear army shirts more often. All this was alien to the old skins, which grumbled at the youth of the 70s for their music and clothes. At that time, among the first wave of skinheads there was a slogan "stay true to the 69th." It is believed that it was in 1969 that the peak of the popularity of the skinhead movement came. Итак, английская молодежь все больше начала увлекаться панк музыкой, а рабочий класс получил собственное движение. Так как собственный музыкальный стиль и стиль одежды у скинов уже был, их взгляды обратились к политике. Многие скинхеды стали поддерживать борьбу правых партий, вливаясь в британский неофашизм, а другие отстаивали идеи левых, пропагандируя рабочий класс и идеи коммунизма. В основном, левыми были скины первой волны, которые противились расизму. Существовали и аполитичные группы, предпочитающие свою субкультурную политику.

The impetus for the development of the Nazi skinhead movement, that is, skins, as they look now, was the transition of the punk group Skrewdriver from street punk directly to skinhead music. This was the first street punk band to publicly declare its neo-Nazi views. They opposed communism and sympathized with the "National Front." By the end of the 70s, right-wing movement intensified, and a skinhead racist appeared on the streets of London. It was a must see! All the media sounded the alarm, the English society, not yet recollecting itself from the Second World War, looked with horror at any skinhead, seeing him as a fascist. The misconception about the "racist" nature of each skin was reinforced by the National Front and the Skrewdriver group. Politicians skillfully watered the skins with the terms fascism and racism. Such actions had the result - skinheads began to be highly negative.

Finally, by the mid-90s, a third wave of skinheads was forming. 17-18-year-old punks shave off their Iroquois and join the ranks of skins. Old skin-ideas are being revived, and in most countries of Europe and the West, classic skinhead groups are being formed. Now it's basically a mix of classic soccer hooligans and hardcore punk skins. In Russia, unfortunately, 99 percent of skinheads are proponents of neo-Nazi views. Modern Russian society firmly believes that any skinhead is a racist.

What do skinheads look like?

1. Distinctive signs of skinheads:

  • “Celtic cross” (image of a cross placed in a circle),
  • classic German swastika,
  • skull and Bones.

2. Skinhead clothing. Preference is given to the military style of “military” - everything to make it convenient to move. Shoes, too, are usually army soles. Since we started about shoes, I note that the color of the laces is of no small importance. By laces, you can determine belonging to a particular direction.

3. Skinhead hairstyles. As you may have guessed, this is a clean-shaven head, but a very short haircut is allowed.

4. Skinhead tattoos. The subject of tattoos is very diverse. It can be both inscriptions and abbreviations, and ordinary patterns. Some apply tattoos in the form of a fascist swastika or any other drawings of a racist-Nazi theme.

The ideology of skinheads

Most skinheads are racists and nationalists, and from here everything that follows is already their main ideology: love for the representatives of their nation, their culture and hatred of others.

Well, in the end I will answer the question "how to become a skinhead?" If the ideology of skins is close to you in spirit, then boldly change your image and look for your similar friends. Just never forget that all your actions must be legal.

Perhaps you have met groups of youth with shaved heads, in identical black jeans and collarless camouflage jackets, in high army boots, with the flag of a slave-owning Confederation sewn on their sleeves? These are skinheads, or, otherwise, skinheads. They call themselves the short word skins. Now almost no one writes about them, but among teenagers in big cities they are already a legend.

The first skinheads appeared in England in 1968. Current followers would be surprised to learn that their predecessors got along well with mulattos and blacks. The fact is that skins appeared as a working, not a racial subculture, directed against both the official culture and in spite of many alternative currents. For example, they considered the rockers to be “fake,” because they were a road storm only on weekends, and worked hard in the office on weekdays. Whom the skinheads did not like - that is the “packs” (Pakistanis). And not as foreigners, but as traders. And the blacks and Arabs, who worked with skinheads in the same factories, were their guys for them.

Skinheads of the “first wave” got along well with mulattos and blacks

The first skinheads were not skinheads in the literal sense of the word, just their short haircuts with tanks contrasted with fashionable then long hair. The clothing style was not “militaristic”, but proletarian: coarse-haired jackets or a short coat with a leather yoke, coarse trousers with an “eternal arrow”, a long “knee-length” jacket, knee-high and heavy durable high boots of construction workers and dockers. No followers of the first skinheads were found, and by 1973, when the guys had matured and started families, the movement came to naught.

Skinheads of the “first wave”, 60s of XX century

Skinheads revived in the late 70s, when the Margaret Thatcher government liquidated entire sectors of the economy, which led to an unprecedented increase in unemployment and unrest in the so-called depressed regions. New skins were no longer a working aristocracy, but a declassified environment, they were brought up not on relaxed reggae, but on aggressive punk rock. These guys beat all immigrants indiscriminately because they "occupied their jobs." Neo-Nazi ideologists worked with the new skinheads. There were skin clubs, for the first time the slogan “Let's keep Britain white!”

“Let's keep Britain white!” - the “second wave” skinhead slogan

Then the “first wave” skinheads got out of their apartments, furious that their movement began to be associated with the Nazis. The fights between the "old" and "new" skinheads took on the character of street riots (especially in Glasgow). The result of these clashes was the emergence of two skin movements - on the one hand, Nazi-skins ("new"), on the other - "red-skins", "red skins" ("old"). Outwardly, red skins differed only in stripes with portraits of Lenin, Mandela, Che Guevara and sometimes red laces in boots. They gained distribution in England, France, Poland, Spain. Nazi-skins took root in Germany, Holland, Scandinavia, Canada, the USA, and later in France, Denmark, and Belgium.


Hoxton Tom McCourt, bass player for The 4-Skins, 1977

In Germany, Germany became the outpost of the Nazi-skin movement

In America, there were groups of white skinheads, Negro skinheads, Puerto Rican skinheads, Jewish skinheads, Hispanic skinheads. In Germany, the Nazis were famous not only for the beating of migrant workers (foreign workers, mainly Turks and Kurds), but also for their murders. At the same time, judges who were more afraid of the “red terror” showed rare favor to the skinheads (in the 80s in Germany, skins were only once convicted for the murder of the Turkish Ramadan Avsi in the summer of 1986).

Skinheads, meanwhile, turned into a political force: they smashed anti-fascists and dealt with trade unions. The authorities realized who they were dealing with when, in 1987, in Lindau, skins attacked Christian believers during a church holiday in St. Stephen's Cathedral (the city authorities refused to provide a municipal hall for the skinhead congress). The Vatican intervened, the skinheads were pressed by the police.

Skinheads appeared in Russia in the early 90s

But soon the Berlin Wall collapsed, and the ranks of skinheads increased at the expense of Germans from East Germany, where unemployment and despair reigned among young people. German neo-fascists began to be considered all over the world as "specialists" in working with young people, and Germany of the 90s was sadly famous for the arsons of immigrant dormitories.

After the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, skinheads appeared in Poland, the Czech Republic, Croatia, Bulgaria and Russia.

Recently, more and more often we hear about skinheads. They are talked about from TV screens, described on the pages of newspapers and magazines. And such a huge amount of information is very difficult to figure out, to find a real answer to the question "skinheads - who is this?" Are they dangerous to society? What are their main Today we will try to answer these questions together.

What is a subculture?

Representatives of a certain youth subculture are teenagers who dress in a peculiar way, listen to certain music, and have their own jargon. They have their own model of behavior. They always arise spontaneously and, most often, try to oppose themselves to the older generation.

Representatives of subcultures are far from always aggressive, cruel, etc. The fact is that with a closer acquaintance with serious publications and books about skinheads, there is an understanding that the picture drawn in our imagination by the media is very far from reality.

Skinheads - a subculture that arose spontaneously

The very word “skinhead” came to us from the English language. Translated, it means “bald head” (“skin head”). At first, Western youth became interested in this area. Over time, adolescents from other countries also joined the movement; as a result, it spread throughout the world. Already in the sixties of the last century everyone knew Subculture continues to exist to this day. It is worth noting that the subculture, as such, is neither an ideological nor a political organization. Only in rare cases can it be associated with any movement or party.

Russian skinheads

Today and in our country, this subculture is very popular. Skinheads in Russia first appeared in 1991. They became students of Moscow technical schools and vocational schools, adolescents living in the capital and Leningrad.

Do Russian skinheads differ from Western ones? Who is it? Ordinary youth united spontaneously? Not really. Despite the fact that in our country the economic crisis was even worse than in England after the war, the skinhead movement in Russia did not appear naturally. Our teenagers were greatly influenced by Western mass culture. This just explains the fact that the offspring of ordinary locksmiths and electricians flaunted in suspenders and boots of dockers from England.

Russian skinheads are still somewhat different. The subculture that arose under the influence of the West makes them shout about their people and country in foreign languages, waving American Confederate and German flags. True, representatives of one of the subspecies of this subculture - bonheads - are engaged in this.

Skins directions

Like any other, this youth subculture has several directions. Skinheads are different. There are red skins that have their own website and even have their own magazine, called "Blasted Sky". A separate area is anti-fascist skins. Representatives of this movement even guarded the concerts of rap artists, whom neo-Nazis consider their sworn enemies. Such an event is called skin security.

However, practically no one speaks very much about the various areas of this subculture. Television announcers, journalists, publicists, anyone who likes to debate on fascism, neo-Nazism and racism, prefer not to mention that there are anti-fascist skins. Therefore, in Russia (and in the West too) the most famous are bonheads.

Bonheads in Russia

So, everyone knows skinheads. Who is this and why are they talked about in all the media? The whole behavior and style of their life is copied from Western models. They dress and look at life in the same way as their Western "brothers", listen to the same music and give priority to the same life values. However, there is still a difference. Skinheads in Russia refer to the Aryan nations not only the American Anglo-Saxon white-skinned people and European peoples, but also the Slavic peoples (primarily Russians).

It is worth noting that Russian skinheads are seriously mistaken. The subculture in Europe is different from ours. In other countries, skinheads completely disagree that Russians can be attributed to the Aryan nation. After all, for them we are "racially inferior."

However, both Western and Russian bonheads are under the tutelage of other, “adult” organizations. They are skillfully controlled by representatives of ultra-right and neo-Nazi movements.

Appearance

Any subculture has its external differences. Skinheads, who are sometimes scared away, just follow certain traditions. So, by their standards, a real skin should look like:

  1. A real Aryan with blond hair, a straight thin nose and gray eyes. Of course, there may be slight deviations from the main type. For example, the eyes may be light brown or blue, or the hair is slightly darker than light blond. However, the general background should remain.
  2. The head should be completely shaved or very short cut. Their hairstyles are not like the hairstyles of bandits or police officers. Skinhead has the same length throughout the head. Not allowed bangs, locks, etc. The main purpose of such a hairstyle is to prevent the enemy from grabbing his hair in a fight.
  3. Almost 100% of skinheads have a lean physique. Meeting a representative of this subculture is obese.
  4. Wear only functional clothing. First of all, skinheads are recognized by army high boots. Preference is given to the famous Grinders. Such shoes serve as a kind of weapon. Sometimes they wear but often prefer black skinny jeans, tucked up to the shoes. There are heavy buckles on the belts. Some guys wear braces. Jackets are black, made of slippery fabric, without a collar.
  5. On a skinhead you will never see baubles, chains on the neck, piercings. Even if a guy wears a pendant in the form of a swastika, you should know that this is not a real representative of the skinhead subculture. In this form, he is no longer a fighter. Not to mention the fact that it’s difficult to get into a fight when you have pierced ears, lips, nose, etc.
  6. A real skinhead does not drink, do not smoke and will never use drugs. Meanwhile, skins often adorn bare skulls and temples with aggressive tattoos.

These are the main features of a representative of this subculture. Something may vary, but in small, minor details.

Skinhead (from English skinhead - a shaved head) - a special trend in fashion that arose due to the emergence of the subculture of the same name among London youth from the working class in the 60s of the twentieth century and then spread around the world. Closely related to musical styles such as ska, reggae and street punk (aka Oi!). Some of the representatives of this subculture grew out of the environment, while others experienced a significant influence of the West Indian ore fights.

Initially, this movement was famous for its non-political nature and was focused only on fashion, music and a certain lifestyle. However, over time, some of the skinheads became involved in politics and sided with different extreme directions, both left and right, as a result of which neo-Nazi and anarchist movements separated from those who remained true to their ideals.

In the late 50s of the twentieth century, Britain was seized by a real economic boom, which, despite all the restrictions, significantly increased the income level of young people from the working class. Some of the young people preferred to spend all their money on new clothes, for which they received the nickname - fashion. Their subculture was characterized by a special commitment to fashion, music and scooters. It was the mods, or rather their branch, the so-called hard mods, that were the first to wear work or army boots, straight or a hundred-prest, with buttons and suspenders. Unlike their more “sophisticated” counterparts, these mods were particularly proud to emphasize their belonging to the working class, cut their hair much shorter and were not averse to fighting. Hard fashion finally developed into a separate movement around 1968 and around the same time received a new nickname - skinheads.


Skinheads still retained some of the features of the previous mods, but they were greatly influenced by the style of ore fights - immigrants from Jamaica who settled in England. Along with their demeanor and some style features, skinheads borrowed a love of ska, rocksteady and early reggae from them. The latter was so popular in this environment that sellers even began to add the skinhead prefix to the word reggae in order to increase sales of records.

The skinhead subculture finally formed by 1969. By this time, skinheads had become so popular that the Slade group even took their appearance as an example for their stage image. Skinheads were given even greater popularity by Richard Allen’s novels “Skinhead” and “Skinhead Escapes”, in which there were a sufficient number of sex scenes and fights.

However, by the beginning of the 70s, the former popularity of skinheads began to decline. Many of the representatives of this direction moved to other groups and began to call themselves in a new way: suedeheads, smoothies or bootboys. The old trends that were once characteristic of mods, such as brogues, suits, slacks and sweaters, returned to fashion.

At the end of the 70s, the skinhead subculture was resurrected again, thanks to the emerging punk stream. At about the same time, for the first time in the history of this subculture, some skinhead groups became involved in politics, and began to adhere to extreme right-wing directions like the National Front and the British Movement.

Since 1979, the number of skinheads has increased significantly. Fighting at football matches has become one of these young people's most favorite activities. However, despite this, among them there were still those who were guided by the previous style. One way or another, this behavior has attracted widespread media attention. Skinheads, as once in their time and fashion, have become a new threat to society.


В конечном счете, субкультура скинхедов вышла далеко за пределы Британии и континентальной Европы, появившись в Австралии и США, но уже со своей местной спецификой.

Традиционные скинхеды принимают за основу стиль оригинальной субкультуры, возникшей в 60-х годах ХХ века.

Движение Oi!-скинхедов подверглось большому влиянию панк-культуры 70-х, поэтому их внешний вид несколько отличается. Обычно у них более короткие волосы, более высокая обувь и более узкие джинсы. Татуировки в среде скинхедов стали популярны как минимум с момента «возрождения» движения в 70-х. В 1980-х годах в Великобритании вы могли бы встретить скинхедов с татуировками даже на лбу или лице, хотя ныне эта практика распространена уже не так сильно. American skinheads preferred to stick to the hardcore style, and this is one of their territorial features.

Most skinheads cut their hair with a razor with a No. 2 nozzle (sometimes No. 3). Thus, the hairstyle was short and neat, but the head did not seem completely bald. However, over time, the length of the hair became less and less, and by the 80s, some representatives shaved their hair “clean”. Among skinheads, it is usually not customary to wear a mustache and beard, but whiskers, which have always been carefully looked after, are extremely popular.

As for the girls, in the 60s most of them continued to adhere to the style of mods, however, starting from the 80s, Chelsea's haircut became especially popular when the hair on the crown shaved very short, leaving the back, whiskey and bangs long. Some girls preferred the more punk version, leaving only bangs and whiskeys long.

First of all, skinheads have always been famous for their button down shirts, short or long sleeves, and polo shirts. Favorite brands are the brands Ben Sherman, Fred Perry, Brutus, Warrior or Jaytex. Also popular are shirts or Everlast, shirts with button-down collars, V-neck sweaters or the same sleeveless jackets, as well as cardigans and t-shirts. Some skinheads targeting Oi! or the hardcore scene wore plain white shirts. This style was especially prevalent in North America. The most popular jackets were considered to be harringtons, bomber jackets, denim jackets (usually blue, sometimes decorated with bright spots with bleach), jackets jackets, crimson coats, parks and much more. Traditional skinheads sometimes wore costumes made of special fabric (a shining material resembling a maher, the color of which shimmered depending on the angle and light).

Many of the skinheads preferred one hundred-prest pants or jeans, mostly brands, or. Usually the trouser-legs rolled up to emphasize the beauty of high boots or to open if moccasins or brogues were put on the feet at that time. Sometimes jeans were also decorated with bleach stains. This style was especially popular among Oi! skinheads.

The girls wore about the same thing, but besides mini-, stockings in a net or short skirt suits, with длиной sleeves.

Most skinheads wore suspenders no more than one inch wide. Wider braces can be associated with the far-right neo-fascist wing of White power skinheads. Traditionally, suspenders cross on the back, however some Oi! oriented skinheads do not do this. Traditional skinheads wear black or white suspenders; sometimes they are decorated with vertical stripes. Often, due to the color of this accessory, skinheads determine the group to which its owner relates.

The most common headgear among skinheads were: spanking hat, felt hats, caps, woolen winter hats (without a tassel). A less common option was bowlers. Mostly they were preferred by cuddles and fans of the cult film A Clockwork Orange.

Traditional skinheads also often wore silk in the breast pocket of their cobby coat or in the pocket of a suit from their favorite iridescent material. Often this piece of fabric was chosen in a contrasting color. Sometimes it was wound on a small cardboard so that it looked from the side like a neatly folded handkerchief. Among skinheads, it was customary to choose colors that match their favorite football club. Sometimes around the neck, wrists or loops of the belt woolen or silk scarves wrapped with the symbols of your favorite team.

Some Syudheads wore canes, which is why they got another nickname Brolly Boys (from the English brolly - umbrella).

Initially, skinheads wore simple military boots from army stockpiles. Later, Dr. work boots became popular in this environment. Martens, especially cherry blossoms. Their skinheads polished to a shine and always made sure that your favorite shoes looked neat. In addition, skinheads wore brogues, moccasins and Dr. low boots. Martens. During the 60s of the twentieth century, Dr. high boots became especially popular. Martens with steel capes hidden under their skin, which turned out to be quite appropriate in street fights. In recent years, skinheads have switched to other brands of shoes, such as Solovair or Tredair, since Dr. Martens ceased to produce in England. Gradually, skinheads entered sports shoes brands or Gola, which was convenient to attend football matches.

Girls usually wore the same shoes as boys, and besides this, the so-called decoy boots. Grafters has long been considered the brand of choice for this model, however today Dr. Martens and Solovair.

For some time, skinheads preferred to wear shoes painted in the colors of their favorite club, but over time, the color of the shoes, as well as suspenders, began to bear symbolic meaning.

I don’t suffer from racism, I don’t promote anything, I just learned a lot about them!

CHAPTER 1. Definition of skinheads.

Skinheads are groups of urban youth who live by their own laws, with their own music, their own distinctive signs, their own fashion in clothes and the concept of “male friendship”. Skinheads are mostly men, but women are also found in their ranks. Political ideas when joining a "tribe" play a secondary role. Some, both fascist and anti-fascist groups managed to create real gangs of "political soldiers" - a dangerous weapon in the political struggle. Some parties use such gangs as mercenaries to secure their rallies, to put up posters and for other secondary tasks. Skins willingly agree to such a job - it would be "beer, sex and fights."

CHAPTER 2. The origin of skinheads.

In 1969, young English workers from the suburbs of London and Liverpool began to oppose hippy and fashion for the ideology of "Peace and Love" ("Peace and Love"). They contrasted their long hair with shaved naps, and pacifism with clashes with gangs of young rockers. At first, the skins adhered to anti-racist views: they were closely tied to their proletarian roots.

Against the backdrop of the economic crisis, the skins became hardened. Their music became more wild - the so-called “oi” style appeared. Skins began to fill the football stadiums, staging grand fights. For the sake of shocking, some of them began to declare their Nazi and fascist views. It was not difficult for the fascists from the European National Front to politically “direct” this violence into provocation. In the early 80s, Skinhead fashion spread throughout Europe. The rise of the fascist parties in Europe and, in particular, in France led to the fact that the skins began to appear at the demonstrations of the "National Front". This happened for the first time in 1984. In Germany and Scandinavia, skinheads formed small, extremely extremist neo-Nazi groups. Around the screwdriver band playing the "oi" music in England, a network of fascist groups, Blood and Honor, is formed. They politicize oi music, giving it a Nazi character, and create the so-called “Rock Against Communism” (RAC). This anti-communism was only an occasion for the manifestation of cruelty towards all those who disagree with them. The Blood and Honor network spread throughout Europe, and in 1992 reached Poland and Slovakia.

In contrast, the Oi band from England, associated with the extreme left Trotskyist party, called for anti-fascist resistance to the Nazis, who "betrayed the multi-racial skinhead culture from the very beginning." So the movement of "redskins", or "red skinheads" was born. In the mid-80s, they appeared in many European countries.

CHAPTER 3. Classification of anti-fascist skinheads.

"Red skinheads" (Red Skins).
Usually the "red skinheads" are called the "Red Skins". Especially the movement spread to Italy (where the memories of the "Red Brigades" were still alive). The "red skinheads" collaborated with punks and left radicals, calling themselves "communists."
Like the Nazi skins, Redskins call for violence as a means of action, but deny, in their own words, a “philosophy of violence." They declare their anti-racist and anti-capitalist views. The appearance of “red skinheads” is the same as that of skinheads around the world. However, "Red Skins" differ from neo-Nazi skins in their symbolism and red laces on their boots.

Skinhead Anti-Fascists (SHARP).
Movement "S.H.A.R.P." (Skinheads Against Racial Prejudices) - Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice arose in America in the late 80s. In 1988, in groups of American skins, mostly apolitical, there was a sharp ideological stratification into neo-Nazi skinheads and everyone else, as a result of which there was a sharp split.
Some skins joined the Ku Klux Klan and various Nazi factions. Some skins, on the contrary, decided to counteract the growth of fascism, racism and neo-Nazism on the American continent. In 1989, in New York, they created the first SHARP organization. In the 90s, this movement, in addition to America, gained popularity in Europe.
Participants in the Red Skins and SHARP movements call the Nazi skinheads not “skinheads” - “leather heads”, but “bonheads” - “head - billiard ball.” However, the latter does not offend the latter, on the contrary, most of the “right-wing skins” prefer to draw a clear line between just shaven-headed and neo-Nazi shaven-headed ones, calling themselves “bonheads”.

Anarchist Red Skinheads (RASH).
In the mid-1990s, another anti-fascist skinhead skin organization was formed in Canada - Red and Anarchist Skinheads (RASH). Canadian Anarchist skins did not want their political ideas to be associated with the “red skins”. Nevertheless, they always spoke on the side of the “red skins”, if they needed help in a fight at a concert or in a bar. Ultimately, most of the differences between anarchist skins and “red skins” are now barely noticeable.

Gay Skins. (GSM - Gay Skinhead Movement). They oppose homophobia and promote homosexuality. The movement is developed mainly in Western Europe.

"Political skinheads."
Along with skinheads, who are building their ideology in accordance with various directions in politics, there are separate groups of skins that are completely apolitical. This type of skins is closest to the first - the English skinheads of the early 60s. At that time, most of the skins still adhered to anti-racist views and were closely attached to their proletarian roots and marginal environment. For example, part of the skins maintained friendly relations with the Jamaican punks from the poor neighborhoods of Rude Boys ("rude guys"). However, non-racist ideology does not reduce the aggressiveness of this type of skin. On the contrary, non-racist skins work with their fists quite often. The main objects of their influence are any non-standard looking personalities, homosexuals, beggars, beggars. The proletarian mood of the skins finds a way out of beating up rich dudes who accidentally, through carelessness or out of curiosity wandered into poor working districts. Today, completely apolitical skins are extremely few.

CHAPTER 4. The hierarchy of Russian skinheads.

"Youngsters"
The first, most numerous group - "youngsters" - these are teenagers of 12-14 years old who still don’t really know what it is to be a real skinhead, but they have already picked up Nazi or racist slogans, clarified some basic norms of behavior inherent in skinheads. Most often this happens with direct imitation of older and more experienced comrades. This category actively uses the external symbolism and attributes of the skin movement - the Celtic cross, Nazi symbols. Although it should be noted that at the moment there is no single, well-established model of uniform.

"Young"
The second category is “youngsters”, older teens, 14–16 years old, actively participating in various neo-Nazi rallies and gatherings, gathering in large regular groups. This category of skinheads has a more clearly defined political orientation and the ability to more or less coherently state the main principles of the skin movement.

"Starshaki"
The third category - "elders", in addition to participating in rallies, gatherings and gatherings, have a solid, fairly well-established political orientation, are able not only in a coherent and

Skinhead clothing style

How to distinguish a representative of a particular subculture from the crowd? Of course, by his (her) clothes. Skinheads are no exception. Their attributes and clothes are different from the general fashion, and, for the most part, unified. Consider the general appearance of a modern skin. We confine ourselves to Russian skinheads as the most familiar trend for us - the appearance of the Russian skin is almost no different from the western one, the difference is only in the Nazi symbols used by our skins.

So, the clothes. The “uniforms” of skinheads were taken from the very origins of the movement, namely from London port workers. These are heavy boots, camouflage pants and t-shirts. The classic look of the skin is a black “bomber jacket” (wide heavy jacket), blue or black jeans with tucked up legs, suspenders and black “berets”. Naturally, a shaved head. The ideal shoe for the skin is the so-called "grinder" (Grinders boots). However, they are not cheap, so they are mainly limited to military footwear. Shoelaces - a separate topic in the equipment of the skin. By the color of the laces, you can determine its belonging to a particular movement group. For example, white shoelaces are worn by those who killed or participated in the murder of a "non-Russian" person, red ones are antifa, brown ones are neo-Nazis. You can, of course, wear shoelaces of any color, not belonging to a particular group, but in this case, skins that honor the tradition, it is better not to catch the eye. In general, skinhead clothing is very practical - it helps to defend oneself in a fight and significantly complicates the blows. The attributes serve the same purpose - metal chains, carbines and so on. Some skins like stripes in the form of German crosses, swastikas and the like. True, they are used very rarely, because in this case the skin becomes easy prey for the police, revealing their ultra-right views.

Many skinheads love tattoos. They are usually applied to closed parts of the body that are not visible under the jacket on the street, because it is easy to detect a proponent of movement. The subject of the tattoo is basically monotonous - these are political ultra-right slogans, swastika symbols, German and Celtic crosses, images of the skins themselves in various poses, various inscriptions such as “Skinhead”, “White Power”, “Working class”, “National Front” and so on . For such tattoos, skinheads are often harassed and abused by law enforcement, as they directly shout about Nazi beliefs, so some people prefer to use less obvious images like pagan gods, weapons, animals and so on. Often pierce letter ciphers, for example, "88", "14/88", "18". Here, the number denotes the serial number of the letter in the Latin alphabet, that is, 88 - Heil Hitler, 18 - Adolf Hitler. 14 is not a letter code, it is 14 words of the White Fight motto formulated by one of the ideologists of the skinhead movement, David Lane, who has been living in a closed American prison for life: “we must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children” (“we must to protect the present of our people and the future of our white children ”). Often there are double runes in the zig zipper (SS), the Otal rune and other runic combinations.

This is the style of modern skinhead. Of course, you should not assume that it is typical of everyone - many skins today dress like most ordinary people, because it is more difficult to calculate. Genuine skin clothes are a tribute to the traditions of the movement.

Conclusion

A swastika on the sleeve, a shaved skull, impressive berets, a black bomber jacket and a menacing look. Skinhead? As we now understand, a stereotype. The skinhead movement initially propagated directly opposed concepts to modern Nazis. Nevertheless, the Nazi skinheads took place as an independent movement and acquired their own music and the views laid down by each subculture. The issue of attitude towards them is certainly controversial. But their actions, without a doubt, are illegal and unethical. Perhaps the skins will change the methodology of the fight against foreign elements in the near future. As for Russia, modern society for the most part expresses a negative attitude towards Russian skinheads. Which does not prevent them from practically with impunity to carry out their actions to destroy and humiliate "non-white" races.

And now, when you read this article, I will ask you to answer one question. So, what do you think now, so who are skinheads: neo-Nazis, or an ordinary teenage subculture?

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